Generators are functions that produces a sequence of results instead of a single sequence. It generally contains the special word yield. The main interest of generators compared to a normal function is to avoid the creation of a list and therefore improve performances (especially memory).
Keep in mind that behaviour of generators is quite different than normal functions: calling a generator function creates an object. It does not start running any statements.
The quick example below illustrates the interest of generators. The following sections gives more insight on where and when to use them.
Let us take an example. The builtins range() function generates a list from a low value to a high value. What if we want a symmetric range that goes from a low value to a high value and then to the low value again. With a standard function, we would write:
>>> def symrange(low, high): ... a = range(low, high) ... b = range(high-2, low-1, -1) ... a.extend(b) ... return a >>> a = symrange(0,3) >>> a [0, 1, 2, 1, 0]
xrange is the generator version of range but here we need to use range.
Here, symrange(0,3) returns a list, that may be used in a for loop later on. What would happen if the symrange is made of million of points. Well, a lot of memory for nothing really special. Here comes the generator:
>>> def symrange(low, high): ... for a in xrange(low, high): ... yield a ... for b in xrange(high-2, low-1, -1): ... yield b >>> a = symrange(0,3) <generator object symrange at 0xaaa65cc>
The yield produces a value but suspends the function. The function resumes on next call to next() function.
>>> ite = symrange(0,10) >>> ite.next() 0
You can call next() until the generator returns. When it returns, the StopIteration error is returned.
So, generators can be used efficiently within a loop (the StopIteration is caught by the for loop):
>>> sym = symrange(0,3) >>> for x in sym: >>> print x
Generators are functions that contain the special word yield. They consist of two separate components:
- the generator-function that is what is defined by the def statement containing a yield
- the generator-iterator that is what this function returns (the variable sym in the above example).
Generators behave quite differently from the ordinary function. The difference is that instead of returning one value, as you do with return, you can yield several values, one at a time. Each time a value is yielded (with yield), the function freezes: it stops its execution. When called again, it resumes its execution at the point where it stopped.
The main consequence is that the generator-built iterator is more efficient that the equivalent function in a memory point of view. Indeed, the generator performs a lazy-evaluation.
Sending values into generator functions is possible by using the send() method. Let us start with the following function (generator):
def mygen(): """Yield 5 until something else is passed back via send()""" a = 5 while True: f = (yield a) #yield a and possibly get f in return if f is not None: a = f #store the new value
You can then use it as follows:
>>> g = mygen() >>> g.next() 5 >>> g.next() 5 >>> g.send(7) #we send this back to the generator 7 >>> g.next() #now it will yield 7 until we send something else 7
Although this example implements a function that is similar to a variable. However, the feature could be used in many other ways ... unlike a variable. It should also be obvious that similar semantics can be implemented using objects (a class implemting Python’s call method, in particular
You can create a generator using the brackets:
x = (n for n in foo if bar(n))
x is a generator. It means you can type:
for n in x: ...
The advantage of this is that you don’t need intermediate storage, which you would need if you did:
x = [n for n in foo if bar(n)]
In some cases this can lead to significant speed up.
A generator function is a convenient way of writing an iterator: you don’t have to worry about the iterator protocol (next, __iter__).
A generator function is a one-time operation. You can iterate through the generated data but to do it again you need another generator.
(expression for i in s if cond1 for j in t if cond2 ... if conditional)
for i in s: if cond1: for j in t: if cond2: ... if condfinal: yield expression
An example provided in the reference consists in scanning a large log file, getting the last column and computing the sum. The last column may an integer or the “-” character that we need to reject with a condition. A classical way is to use a simple for-loop
data = open("log.txt") total = 0 for line in data: col = line.rsplit(None, 1) if col != '-': total += int(col)
A generator version would look like:
data = open("log.txt") bytecolumn = (line.rsplit(None, 1) for line in data) bytes = (int(x) for x in bytecolumn if x!= "-") total = sum(bytes)
On a 1.3Gb log file, the reference reported a the generator version to be 5% faster. Not a bit difference but still faster and more importantly at no time a large list has been created so it can be applied to large files and is competitive with traditional tools (twice as fast as a awk version). An example of generator that searches through a entire file system is the os.walk (see The os module (and sys, and path))
A python equivalent of the unix find function (find . -name “*.py”)
import os import fnmatch def gen_find(filepat, top): for path, dirlist, filelist in os.walk(top): for name in fnmatch.filter(filelist, filepat): yield os.path.join-path, name) for name in gen_find("*.py", "."): print name
The unix version is faster but difference is only about 15% and you now have a find function on every platform !